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  •  When did Stalin die? Who became the new leader of Russia
    • 1953: Nikita Khrushchev.
  •  What were the meetings between the superpower leaders called?
    • Summits
  •  What did Khrushchev tell Tito in 1955?
    • ‘There are different roads to Communism.’
  •  What did Khrushchev say about Stalin in 1956?
    • He said he was a murderer and a tyrant.
  •  What was Khrushchev’s policy called? What did he really mean by it?
    • ‘Peaceful co-existence’: but he meant ‘peaceful competition’
  •  What was de-stalinisation? Why was it dangerous for world peace?
    • Political prisoners were set free. It destabilised Iron Curtain countries.
  •  How did Khrushchev build up support in countries like Afghanistan and Burma?
    • Economic aid.
  •  What was the first satellite and when was it launched?
    • Sputnik, 1957.
  •  Who was the first astronaut to orbit the earth, and when did he do it?
    • Yuri Gagarin, 1961.
  •  When did Russia get the hydrogen bomb?
    • 1953.
  •  What was the military alliance set up by Khrushchev, and what countries were in it?
    • Warsaw Pact:
    • USSR
    • Albania
    • Bulgaria
    • Czechoslovakia
    • East Germany
    • Hungary
    • Poland
    • Romania.
  •  Which American senator led a ‘witch-hunt’ for communists in America?
    • Joseph McCarthy
  •  What did NATO agree to in 1955 in West Germany?
    • A West German army of half a million men.
  •  How did America spy on Russia?
    • U2 planes.
  •  Name the FIVE crises after 1955.
    • 1956 Poland
    • 1956 Hungary
    • 1960 U2 crisis
    • 1961 Berlin Wall
    • 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis
  •  Who led the Polish riots of 1956?
    • Railway workers
  •  Which Polish Communist kept control of Poland?
    • Gomulka
  •  List the FIVE reasons for the Hungarian uprising.
    • Poverty
    • Russian control
    • Catholic Church
    • Help from the West
    • Destalinisation
  •  Who rioted in Hungary on 23 October 1956, and what did they do?
    • Smashed Stalin’s statue, attacked the AVH and Russian soldiers.
  •  Who became the Prime Minister of Hungary?
    • Imre Nagy
  •  What FOUR reforms did the rebels order?
    • Democracy
    • Freedom of speech
    • Freedom of religion
    • Leave the Warsaw Pact
  •  What FIVE reasons led Russia to send in the tanks? Which was the most important?
    • Hungary wanted to leave the Warsaw Pact: this was the most important.
    • China asked Russia to act
    • Hungary seemed to be turning capitalist
    • Hard-line Communists in the Russian government
    • Khrushchev realised the West would not help.
  •  How many tanks invaded Budapest.
    • 1000
  •  Why did Britain and France not help Hungary?
    • Britain and France were involved in the Suez crisis
  •  Who was the President of America in 1956? Why did he not help Hungary?
    • Eisenhower. He did not think Hungary worth a war.
  •  Why did the UN not help Hungary?
    • Russia used its veto.
  •  Who did Khrushchev put in charge of Hungary?
    • Janos Kadar
  •  How many Hungarians fled to Austria?
    • 200,000
  •  What did Khrushchev demand from America in 1959?
    • That America withdraw from West Berlin.
  •  With whom did Khrushchev argue about kitchens in 1959?
    • American Vice-President Richard Nixon.
  •  What crisis began on 5 May 1960.
    • U2 crisis.
  •  Which summit meeting was ruined because of the crisis?
    • Paris Summit, 14 May 1960.
  •  Who did the Americans elect as their President in 1961?
    • John F Kennedy.
  •  Which two places in the Far East did Kennedy finance anti-communist fighters?
    • Vietnam and Laos.
  •  How many refugees had fled to West Berlin by 1961? Why was this bad for Russia?
    • 3 million:
    • It was an embarrassment because it showed Communism was NOT better for people.
    • Many of the people who fled were skilled workers.
  •  What did Khrushchev demand at the Vienna summit of June 1961?
    • That the Americans leave West Berlin.
  •  What date did Khrushchev begin to build the Berlin Wall?
    • 13 August 1961.
  •  Why did Khrushchev say he built the wall?
    • The Americans were using West Berlin as a base for spies and sabotage.
  •  When did Fidel Castro come to power in Cuba?
    • 1959.
  •  What did his 1960 trade agreement with Russia say?
    • Cuba sent sugar to Russia in return for oil, machines and money.
  •  What did Castro do to America companies in 1961 which angered America?
    • Nationalised them.
  •  What was the name for the failed invasion of Cuba in 1961. Why was it an embarrassment for Kennedy?
    • Bay of Pigs: although the CIA supported the invasion, it failed miserably.
  •  What did a U2 spy-plane discover on Cuba in October 1962?
    • Nuclear missile bases.
  •  What were Kennedy’s FIVE options, and which did he choose?
    • Nuclear strike
    • Conventional attack
    • Work through UN
    • Do nothing
    • Mount a naval blockade – this is what he chose to do, at a meeting on 16 October 1962.
  •  What did Khrushchev accuse America of?
    • Piracy, and trying to destroy humankind.
  •  What deal was done between Kennedy and Khrushchev?
    • Khrushchev dismantled the Cuban bases publicly; Turkey dismantled the Turkish bases secretly.
  •  What event during the crisis (27 Oct) almost caused a nuclear war?
    • An American U2 spy-plane was shot down by the Cubans.
  •  What did the two leaders set up after the Missiles Crisis to prevent another such crisis?
    • A telephone ‘hotline’.
  •  What agreement began the thaw in 1963?
    • Nuclear Test Ban Treaty.