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Test Your Understanding

    

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  •  Who was Prime Minister of Britain in 1945?
    • Winston Churchill
  •  Who was president of the USA in February 1945?
    • Franklin D Roosevelt
  •  Who became president of the USA in 1945?
    • Truman
  •  Who was leader of Russia in 1945?
    • Stalin
  •  What is a ‘cold war’?
    • America and Russia were enemies but they didn’t declare war. But they did everything to oppose each other short of war.
  •  List FOUR causes of the Cold War.
    • Beliefs
    • Aims
    • Resentment about History
    • Events
  •  What do Communists believe?
    • That the means of production should be owned and controlled by the government.
  •  The USA is a ‘capitalist democracy’. What do these words mean?
    • Capitalists believe that property and industry should be privately owned.
    • Democracy is where the people can elect their own government.
  •  Name TWO historical complaints that Stalin had against Britain and the USA.
    • In 1918 Britain and the USA had tried to destroy the Russian Revolution.
    • Stalin thought that they had not given him enough help in the Second World War.
  •  What could Britain and the USA not forgive Stalin for (from 1939)?
    • Stalin had signed the Nazi-Soviet Pact with Germany in 1939.
  •  Give TWO things that Stalin wanted from the peace.
    • huge reparations from Germany a ‘buffer’ of friendly states to protect the USSR from being invaded again.
  •  What worried Britain and the USA about Stalin’s plans?
    • that large areas of eastern Europe were falling under Soviet control.
  •  When did Russia develop the atomic bomb?
    • 1949
  •  List TEN events leading up to the Cold War, Feb 1945 to Mar 1948.
    • Yalta Conference (Feb 1945)
    • Potsdam Conference (Jul 1945)
    • Hiroshima (Aug 1945)
    • Salami tactics (1945-48)
    • Fulton Speech (Mar 1946)
    • Greece (Feb 1947)
    • Truman Doctrine (Mar 1947)
    • Marshall Plan (Jun 1947)
    • Cominform (Oct 1947)
    • Czechoslovakia (Mar 1948)
  •  Give FOUR things agreed at Yalta.
    • divide Germany into four ‘zones’, which Britain, France, the USA and the USSR would occupy after the war.
    • hold elections in the countries of eastern Europe.
    • set up a government in Poland which would contain both Communists and non-Communists.
    • set up the United Nations.
  •  Explain TWO reasons why the Potsdam Conference was less successful than Yalta.
    • In March 1945, Stalin had invited the non-Communist Polish leaders to meet him, and arrested them.
    • America had a new president, Truman, who was determined to ‘get tough’ with the Russians.
  •  Name THREE things that the ‘Big Three’ disagreed about at Potsdam.
    • the details of how to divide Germany.
    • the size of reparations Germany ought to pay.
    • Soviet policy in eastern Europe.
  •  What were ‘salami tactics’?
    • gradually getting rid of all opposition, bit-by-bit.
  •  Was is ‘totalitarianism’?
    • where the government has total power over the people.
  •  Was does the word ‘imperialistic’ mean?
    • wanting to build and empire. Communists used it as an abuse-word to describe the western powers.
  •  What was Churchill’s Fulton speech (5 March 1946) about?
    • He said ‘a shadow’ had fallen on eastern Europe, which was now cut off from the free world by ‘an iron curtain’.
    • Behind that line, he said, the people of eastern Europe were ‘subject to Soviet influence . . . totalitarian control [and] police governments’.
  •  Why did Britain keep soldiers in Greece after the Second World War had finished?
    • To support the Greek free government against the Communists.
  •  What happened when the British could no longer afford to keep soldiers in Greece?
    • America paid for the soldiers, and also gave economic aid to Greece.
  •  What did the Truman Doctrine say?
    • Truman told Americans that it was America’s DUTY to stop Communism.
    • His policy towards the Soviet Union was one of ‘containment’ – he did not try to destroy the USSR, but he wanted to stop it growing any more.
  •  Why did Marshall propose the Marshall Plan?
    • He said every country in Europe was so poor that it was in danger of turning Communist.
    • Europe was ‘a breeding ground of hate’.
  •  How much aid did the Marshall Plan want to send to Europe?
    • $17 billion
  •  Which country turned Communist in March 1948?
    • Czechoslovakia
  •  What rival to Marshall Aid did Stalin set up in 1947?
    • Cominform
  •  Give FIVE causes of the Berlin blockade.
    • Cold War was just getting started
    • Aims
    • Bizonia
    • American Aid
    • New Currency
  •  How long did the blockade last?
    • 318 days
  •  How did the US and Britain supply the Berliners?
    • by airplane
  •  List FOUR results of the Berlin blockade.
    • Cold War got worse
    • East and West Germany
    • NATO and the Warsaw Pact
    • Arms Race