Putsch grew out of Hitler's attempt to exploit the crisis of
1923. At first, Hitler had prepared his
stormtroopers to help in a wider Bavarian rebellion.
When the Bavarian leaders (Kahr, Lossow and Seisser)
threatened to call off the action, Hitler realised that he
could not keep the stormtroopers waiting any
longer. On the night of 8 Nov 1923 he took over
the Beer Hall and forced Kahr, Lossow and Seisser to promise
to support him. A triumphal march into Munich was
planned on 9 Nov, but the police easily dispersed the Nazis..
Although the Putsch failed, it - and the trial that followed -
turned Hitler into a national hero, and laid the foundation of
his future success.
- basic account
page - excellent
Putsch - from the TV drama The Rise of Evil
Constitutional flaws/ Left Wing opponents (the KPD)/
Right Wing opponents (see page 4) had all made the
government weak and vulnerable.
Invasion and inflation made the government VERY weak
in 1923. Everybody
was very angry with the government – there were
Communist rebellions in Saxony and Thuringia.
In the crises of 1923, the membership of the Nazi
Party grew from 6,000 to 55,000.
The Nazi Stormtroopers (SA) grew quickly, and wanted
a revolution - in October, an SA leader told Hitler that,
if there was not a rebellion soon, the SA would ‘sneak
Hitler became friends with General Ludendorff (a WWI
hero) – he thought that the Army would follow Ludendorff
in a putsch.
September 1923, the German Chancellor, Stresemann, called
off the general strike in the Ruhr (it was ruining
made EVERY German angry with the government.
There was a right-wing revolt (by the ‘Black
Reichswehr’) in Berlin on 1 October 1923, and the
Rhineland declared independence on 21–22 October.
government had to proclaim a State of Emergency, Sept
1922, Mussolini had seized control of the government of
Italy by marching on Rome.
Hitler hoped to copy his example.
Bavaria, the right-wing local government wanted to rebel
against the Weimar Republic.
leaders – Kahr (State Commissioner), Lossow (Local Army
Commander) and Seisser (Chief of Police) – planned a
march of 15,000 soldiers on Berlin.
was going to help them, but on 4 Nov., they postponed the
hoped the Munich Putsch would force them to rebel.
interrupted the Beer Hall meeting, and forced Kahr, Lossow
and Seisser at gunpoint to agree to support him.
SA took over the Army HQ (but NOT the telegraph office).
were beaten up, and the offices of the anti-Nazi Munich
Post newspaper offices trashed.
released by Hitler, called in the police and army
Nazis marched on Munich.
by police in Residenzstrasse, 16 Nazis were killed.
hid, then fled (he was arrested 2 days later).
Nazis were defeated and their leaders were arrested.
Hitler was arrested and put on trial for treason.
He was imprisoned for 9 months and forbidden to
speak in public.
turned his trial into a publicity opportunity, giving long
speeches. Before the Munich Putsch, Hitler was an unknown
After his trial he was a national right-wing hero.
the judge said he agreed with Hitler, and gave him only a
short prison sentence.
he was in prison, Hitler wrote Mein Kampf, in which
he set out his life-story and beliefs. The book sold in
millions, and made Hitler the leader of the right-wing
opponents of Weimar.
realised that he would not gain power by rebellion.
He began a new strategy – to gain power by being