Back   Six Terms of the Treaty of Versailles

 

[Memory word: GARGLE]

    

Guilt for the War

By clause 231 of the  treaty, Germany had to accept the blame ‘for causing all the loss and damage’ of the war.

   

Armed forces

The Treaty restricted German armed forces to:

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only 100,000 men in the army

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conscription was banned – soldiers had to be volunteers

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no submarines or aeroplanes

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only six battleships

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the Rhineland had to be de-militarised

Reparations

Germany had to pay for all the damage of the war – a sum was eventually set at £6,600 million – in installments, until 1984.

  

Germany lost territory

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Alsace-Lorraine was given back to France

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The Saar coalfields were given to France for 15 years

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Malmedy was given to Belgium

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North Schleswig was given to Denmark (after a plebiscite)

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West Prussia (including the ‘Polish corridor’) and Upper Silesia were given to Poland.

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Danzig was made a ‘free city’.

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Memel was given to Lithuania.

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German colonies were made ‘mandates’ of the League of Nations, to be looked after by France (Cameroons), Britain (Tanganyika), Japan (islands in the Pacific), Australia (New Guinea) and New Zealand (Samoa)

  

League of Nations

was set up as an international forum to settle disputes by discussion, not war.

Extra points

In addition, the Treaty:

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forbade Anschluss (union) between Germany and Austria.

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made Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania independent states.

   

   

In all, Germany lost:

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10% of its land

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all its colonies

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12% of its population

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16% of its coalfields

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half its iron and steel industry

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most of its army and navy

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all its airforce.