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Test your Understanding

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  •  What were the 3 aims of Hitler’s Foreign Policy?
    • To abolish the Treaty of Versailles
    • To expand German territory
    • To defeat Communism
  •  What was Lebensraum?
    • 'Living space' - room for the growing German population, especially in eastern Europe.
  •  What was Anschluss?
    • 'Union' - specifically between Germany and Austria
  •  What were the eight steps to war, 1935–1939?
    • Saar (1935)
    • Rearmament (1933 onwards)
    • Rhineland (7 March 1936)
    • Austria (11 March 1938)
    • Sudetenland (1 October 1938)
    • Czechoslovakia (15 March 1939)
    • Nazi-Soviet Pact (23 August 1939)
    • Poland (1 September 1939)
  •  What is conscription?
    • Calling up men to join the army.
  •  What date did Hitler introduce conscription in Germany?
    • 1935.
  •  When did Hitler reoccupy the Rhineland?
    • 7 March 1936
  •  How many soldiers did Hitler’s army have when he reoccupied the Rhineland, and what were their orders?
    • 22,000; they had orders to retreat if the French tried to stop them.
  •  What did Chamberlain give Hitler at Munich?
    • The Sudetenland - the Czechs were not consulted.
  •  What was the date of the Munich agreement?
    • 29 September 1938
  •  When did Hitler invade Poland?
    • 1 September 1939
  •  When did Britain declare war on Germany?
    • 3 September 1939
  •  What was ‘appeasement’?
    • Giving a bully what he wants - specifically, buying peace by giving Hitler everything he wanted.
  •  Give an example of someone who agreed with Chamberlain’s policy.
    • The Daily Express
    • Most of the British people
    • The French premier Daladier
  •  Give an example of someone who disagreed with Chamberlain’s policy.
    • Winston Churchill
  •  What date did Hitler invade Austria?
    • 11 March 1938
  •  During the Sudeten crisis, Chamberlain met Hitler on three occasions – where, and when?
    • Berchtesgaden (15 September 1938)
    • Bad Godesberg (22 September 1938)
    • Munich (29 September 1938)
  •  Why did Chamberlain decide not to help Czecholsovakia?
    • it was 'a far away country' - 'You only have to look at the map to see that nothing we could do could possibly save Czechoslovakia'
    • it was a quarrel 'between peoples of whom we know nothing'
    • 'War is a fearful thing, and we must be very clear before we embark on it that it is really the great issues which are at stake'.
    • 'I am myself a man of peace to the depths of my soul'.
  •  What were FIVE main reasons why Chamberlain appeased Hitler?
    • Some British people approved of Hitler's policies.
    • The British people hoped that a strong Germany would stop the growth of Communist Russia.
    • Many people felt that events in Europe were not Britain's business.
    • Many British people wanted peace.
    • Many British people agreed with Hitler that the Treaty of Versailles was unfair.
  •  What did Chamberlain call the Munich agreement?
    • 'Peace for our time.'
  •  What did Churchill call it?
    • 'A total defeat'.
  •  When did Hitler march into the Sudetenland?
    • 1 October 1938
  •  When did Hitler invade the rest of Czechoslovakia?
    • 15 March 1939
  •  What was Kristallnacht, and why did it turn British people away from appeasement?
    • Nazi attacks on the Jews (8 November 1938) - it showed that Hitler was a monster.
  •  What was the ‘National register’, which was set up in December 1938?
    • A register of who would do what if there was a war
  •  What were Londoners given in January to prepare them for war?
    • Anderson air-raid shelters
  •  What did the Civil Defence Act of April 1939 say?
    • It made plans to evacuate women and children to the countryside.
  •  What was the act which introduced conscription in England, and what date was it passed?
    • The Military Training Act (1 May 1939)
  •  What was the name of the alliance between Mussolini and Hitler?
    • Pact of Steel (22 May 1939)
  •  What was the date of the Nazi-Soviet Pact?
    • 23 August 1939
  •  Give four reasons why Britain did not manage to make an alliance with Russia?
    • Suspicion
    • Choice
    • Appeasement
    • Britain delayed
  •  Give four reasons why Germany did manage to make an alliance with Russia?
    • Time to prepare for war
    • Hope to gain
    • Unhappy with Britain
    • Germany